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  • How Many Ancestor Courts of Buddhism Sects in Xi’an?

    Published:2015/01/06 Famous Temples Read:348

    中国汉传佛教有宗派和祖庭之分,历史上形成了八大宗派,即三论宗、禅宗、天台宗、华严宗、法相宗、律宗、淨土宗和密宗。其中除了天台和禅宗两宗外,其馀六宗的首传祖庭全部在中国陝西省西安市附近。分别是三论宗祖庭——草堂寺,华严宗祖庭——华严寺,律宗祖庭——淨业寺,淨土宗祖庭——香积寺,法相宗祖庭——大慈恩寺,密宗祖庭——大兴善寺。

    香积寺,位于陝西省西安市长安区郭杜街道神禾原,为唐代专门纪念淨土宗创始人善导大师而建。善导大师创立淨土宗,古今尊奉为弥陀化身,长安乃是大师主要教化之地,香积寺因供奉大师十三层崇灵之塔,因而成为历代淨土行人崇仰与嚮往的圣地,香积寺也成为世界淨土宗行人共同尊奉的祖庭。

    善导大师初在玄中寺师从道绰大师,道绰大师圆寂后,善导大师至当时帝京长安大弘法化,楷定古今诸师对淨土教义的误解,建立“本愿称名,凡夫入报”之淨土宗根本教义,规范淨土之行仪,正式创立淨土宗。善导大师圆寂后,唐高宗和武则天为纪念大师伟业,于西元689年,乃敕大师门弟怀恽法师于长安凤城之南神禾原建立大师崇灵塔十三层,并建造香积寺,殿堂峥嵘,雄伟壮观。

    西安市长安区的华严寺,为唐代樊川八大寺之一。华严寺始建于唐贞元十九年(803),现仅存砖塔两座,东为初祖杜顺禅师塔,西为四祖清凉国师塔。四祖法名澄观,于三祖法藏殁后私淑其学,住五台山清凉寺,撰新译《华严经疏》等,后世称之“清凉大师”。

    陝西长安区淨业寺,建于隋代(581━618),为创立佛教律宗(南山律)的唐代着名高僧道宣律师的道场。历代尊道宣律师为律宗开祖。

    陝西西安大慈恩寺,创建于隋开皇九年(589年),为唐玄奘三藏法师翻译佛经的译场。玄奘法师创立法相宗,此寺为法相宗祖庭,日本佛教法相宗亦以此寺为祖庭。

    陝西西安城南大兴善寺,创建于晋泰始至太康年间(265━289),隋唐盛时为翻译佛经的国立译场。其中,以唐开元年间来华的印度高僧善无畏、金刚智、不空翻译了大量佛教密典,贡献最大,称开元三大士,盛宏密教。日本僧人弘法大师空海师事不空弟子惠果,回国后建立真言宗。该寺是有中外影响的重要古刹,西安佛教协会所在地。

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