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  • The Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes

    Published:2015/01/06 Famous Temples Read:595

    敦煌是古代丝绸之路上的重镇,敦煌莫高窟是甘肃省敦煌市境内西千佛洞的总称。

    莫高窟位于甘肃敦煌市东南25公里处,开凿在鸣沙山东麓断崖上,坐落在鸣沙山和三危山的怀抱中。南北长约1600多米,上下排列五层、高低错落有致、鳞次栉比,形如蜂房鸽舍,壮观异常。它是我国著名的四大石窟之一,也是世界上现存规模最宏大,保存最完好的佛教艺术宝库、举世闻名的佛教艺术中心。

    前秦符坚建元二年(西元366年)有沙门乐尊者行至此处,见鸣沙山上金光万道,状有千佛,于是萌发开凿之心,后曆建不断,遂成佛门圣地,号为敦煌莫高窟,俗称千佛洞。

    莫高窟虽然在漫长的岁月中受到大自然的侵袭和人为的破坏,至今保留有从十六国、北凉、北魏、西魏、北周、隋、唐、五代、宋、西夏、元、清等十个朝代的洞439 个,像许多个蜂窝聚集在一起。

    莫高窟是古建筑、雕塑、壁画三者相结合的艺术宫殿,尤以丰富多彩的壁画着称于世。敦煌壁画容量和内容之丰富,是当今世界上任何宗教石窟、寺院或宫殿都不能媲美的。环顾洞窟的四周和窟顶,到处都画着佛像、飞天、伎乐、仙女等。有佛经故事画和佛教史迹画,也有神怪画和供养人画像,还有各式各样精美的装饰图案等。壁画总面积达四万五千多平方米,若把壁画排列,能伸展30多公里,是世界上最长、规模最大、内容最丰富的一个画廊。敦煌壁画形象逼真,尤其是:“飞天”图案,被唐朝人讚誉为“天衣飞扬,满壁风动”,成为敦煌壁画的象徵。

    莫高窟的雕塑久享盛名,共有彩塑像两千多尊,有高达35米的弥勒菩萨坐像,也有十几釐米的菩萨像, 堪称是一座大型雕塑馆,雕塑对整个石窟艺术起着主导作用,窟内壁画是围绕这些塑像而展开的,它的石窟主要开凿于盛唐时期。

    近几十年来,国内外学者对敦煌艺术极感兴趣,不断进行研究,形成了一个专门学科“敦煌学”。

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